Biological significance

The super group of arboviruses (for arthropod-borne viruses) comprises five families of viruses (Togaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Reoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae), with over a thousand members distributed worldwide. The most infamous members are Westnile, dengue, yellow fever, Chikungunya, Rift valley fever, Schmallenberg, and Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses. These viruses are mainly transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes, sand-flies, and ticks. Many arboviruses cause severe illness in humans such as encephalitis, hepatitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Due to their mode of transmission as well as global warming and human activity, these viruses are considered emerging agents of diseases. The recent outbreaks of Westnile virus in USA (about 5,000 infected persons and 240 lethal cases in 2012) and Canada (about 130 cases in Québec) underscore the importance to take seriously arboviruses as potential emerging agents of disease. Some are now classified as potential biological weapons in bioterrorism. Currently there are no available vaccines or treatments approved for human use against most arboviruses.

Bunyaviridae are  important  pathogens  in  vertebrates  and  humans. The family comprises five genera (Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Tospovirus) with  over  350  family members worldwide. With the exception of hantaviruses, they are arboviruses. As for many other arboviruses, research on bunyaviruses has not had a high priority in the past, and therefore relatively little is known about their strategies for transmission and infection. The aim of our laboratory is to investigate early host-arbovirus interactions using bunyaviruses as a model. To this end, various cell biological and molecular approaches, including state-of-the-art confocal microscopy- and flow cytometry-based methods, in fixed and living cells, are employed in combination with a large panel of perturbants of the cell functions (e.g. drugs, constitutively active and inactive mutants, siRNAs etc.). Through this research program, we expect to gain a detailed picture of the molecular and cellular mechanisms subverted by these viruses to infect a host.

More about bunyavirus diseases? see Stanford and Wikipedia.

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Recommended publications

Elliott RM and Brennan B (2014) “Emerging phleboviruses” Curr. Opin. Virol. 5, 50-7

Horne KM and Vanlandingham DL (2014) “Bunyavirus-vector interactions” Viruses 6(11), 4373-97

Lasecka L and Baron MD (2014) “The molecular biology of nairoviruses, an emerging group of tick-borne arboviruses” Arch. Virol. 159(6), 1249-65

Elliott RM (2014) “Orthobunyaviruses: recent genetic and structural insights” Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 12(10), 673-85

Plyusnin A and Elliott RM (2011) “Bunyaviridae: molecular and cellular biology” Caister Academic Press

Schmaljohn C and Nichol S (2007) “Bunyaviridae. In Fields Virology” K. D. ed. (Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) pp. 1741-88

Soldan   SS   and   Gonzalez-Scarano   F   (2005)  “Emerging   infectious   diseases:   the Bunyaviridae” J. Neurovirol. 11, 412-23

Walter CT and Barr JN (2011) “Recent advances in the molecular and cellular biology of bunyaviruses” J. Gen. Virol. 92(11), 2467-84